References

For seminar papers (and BA/MA theses that I supervise) please use the following citation style, which loosely follows that of the Journal of European Public Policy (JEPP). The style is in author-date format (“Harvard”) with in-text citations (no footnotes), which is a convention widely used in the political sciences. Below I shortly summarize these guidelines and slightly expand on them in some areas.

If this is not your last academic paper and you are not using a reference management software already, I encourage you to install Zotero (see here). This is an open-source reference management software that lets you add a wide variety of citation styles, among them the one for JEPP (see here). While this will save you a bunch of time, please beware! This will not make your references an automatic success. When adding a source to your library check it carefully for errors. Moreover, always double-check your bibliography before handing your paper in. Whenever there is a mistake, you will not get to blame Zotero 😉


General

  1. Please make sure to include all sources you use in the text in the bibliography at the end. Do not include sources you have read but not actually used in the text. Double-check your bibliography right before handing in.
  2. When you include two or more publications by the same author, distinguish them by alphabetically adding letters to the year of publication (e.g., Jones 2000a, 2000b, 2000c).
  3. When using sources from more than one author in the same reference, order them alphabetically and separate them using semicolons (e.g., Adams 2002; Burns and Jones 1999a, 1999b; Colbert 2010).
  4. When you already referred to the author(s) in the sentence itself, only add the year of publication in brackets, as in “Smith (2015) claimed that…”.
  5. When a reference has three or more authors, only state the first followed by “et al.” (e.g.,  Smith et al. 2014). Please note that this only applies to the in-text citation. In the bibliography you will need to list all authors.
  6. Important! Always include page numbers in your in-text citations, even if they are not direct quotations (e.g., Smith 2015: 15). It is a basic principle of academic courtesy to let the reader know where to find the necessary stepping stone for the development of your argument. The only exception for me are journal articles where you are referring to elements mentioned in the abstract.

This is, basically, all you need to know for in-text citations. In what follows, I will spell out their long form when included in the bibliography at the end.


Scholarly sources

Journal article

  • Dür, A., Mateo, G. and Thomas, D. C. (2010) ‘Negotiation theory and the EU: the state of the art’, Journal of European Public Policy 17(5): 613–618.
  • Tallberg, J. (2008) ‘Bargaining power in the European Council’, Journal of Common Market Studies 46(3): 685–708.
  • Zimmermann, H. (2016) ‘Balancing sustainability and commerce in international negotiation: the EU and its fisheries partnership agreements’, Journal of European Public Policy, doi: 10.1080/13501763.2016.1146324.
The final source refers to a so-called “online first” or “early view” version of an article, i.e. an article that is not yet available in print and therefore has no volume, issue or page numbers. In these cases, please add the digital object identifier (doi), which is a permanent number uniquely identifying individual publications.

Books and edited volumes

  • Moravcsik, A. (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Richardson, J. and Mazey, S. (eds) (2015) European Union: Power and Policy-Making, 4th Ed., London: Routledge.
  • Wallace, H., Pollack, M.A. and Young, A.R. (eds) (2015) Policy-Making in the European Union, 7th Ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Note that edited volumes are added mostly for the sake of completeness. Whenever you refer to chapters in edited volumes, you will need to follow another pattern (see below). This also applies to the introduction, even when written by the editors and carrying the same title as the edited volume. Therefore, you will almost never include edited volumes in your bibliography as such but always refer to specific chapters.
  • Young, A.R. (2015) ‘The European policy process in comparative perspective’, in H. Wallace, M.A. Pollack, and A.R. Young (eds), Policy-Making in the European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 46–71.

 Reports by think tanks

  • Kurpas, S., Grøn, C. and KaczyÅ„ski, P. M. (2008) ‘The European Commission after enlargement: does more add up to less?’, CEPS Special Report, Brussels: Centre  for European Policy Studies, available at https://www.ceps.eu/publications/european-commission-after-enlargement-does-more-add-less (accessed September 2016).
Note that you should use material from think tanks only sparingly (mostly in the empirical section) and prefer peer-reviewed academic sources in your theory part. Moreover, these sources are a bit difficult to implement with Zotero. As a work-around, I save reports as books and note the series of the report (“CEPS Special Report”) in the book series field, which is not displayed by default. At the end, you need to manually add the report series (and italicize it), de-italicize the title and put the title within single-upper quotation marks. If you find a more convenient solution using Zotero, please let me know.

Primary sources

Journalistic sources

  • Financial Times (2006) UK urges EU to ease trade laws for poor nations, 16 October, available at https://www.ft.com/content/e6f81cb4-5c66-11db-9e7e-0000779e2340 (accessed October 2016).

Please note that I personally prefer to use the name of the newspaper as “author name” rather than the actual name of the reporter. While the newspaper gives me some indication of what kind of information to expect, it is often difficult to associate the names of individual reporters with newspapers. Moreover, I like being able to quickly spot the difference between academic (author last name) and journalistic sources (newspaper title).


EU documents

  • Council of Ministers (2009) ‘Implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon – delegated acts’, Council Document No. 16998/09, available at http://www.ksh.hu/docs/eu2011/doc/council_290_291_en.pdf (accessed June 2013).
  • European Commission (2009) ‘Report from the Commission on the working of committees during 2008’, COM(2009) 335 Final, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0335:FIN:EN:PDF (accessed July 2013).
  • European Commission (2013) ‘Key facts on the Joint Africa-EU Strategy’, MEMO/13/367, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-367_en.htm (accessed October 2016).
  • European Commission (2016) ‘EU and Egypt to step up cooperation on socio-economic development’, IP/16/3395, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-3395_en.htm (accessed July 2015).
  • European Community (2006) ‘Regulation (EC) No 1905/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 establishing a financing instrument for development cooperation’, published in OJ L 378, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32006R1905 (accessed July 2015).
  • European Parliament (2010) ‘Draft report on the proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and of the Council laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by member states of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers’, PE441.207v02-00, available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+COMPARL+PE-441.207+02+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN (accessed July 2013).

The Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) do not need to be included in your references. It is sufficiently clear what this refers to without a separate reference. But if you need to quote earlier versions, please indicate it clearly in the text, e.g. Art. 12 TEU (consolidated version 2002) or Art. 133 TEC (consolidated version 1992). You can find a chronological list of all treaties here. When you use many primary sources in your paper, you can exceptionally add full references for these sources in the footnotes to unclutter the bibliography.

Still questions? Find JEPP’s original guidelines here or leave me a comment below.

 

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