For seminar papers (and BA/MA theses that I supervise) please use the following citation style, which loosely follows that of the Journal of European Public Policy (JEPP). The style is in author-date format (“Harvard”) with in-text citations (no footnotes), which is a convention widely used in the political sciences. Below I shortly summarize these guidelines and slightly expand on them in some areas.
If this is not your last academic paper and you are not using a reference management software already, I encourage you to install Zotero (see here). This is an open-source reference management software that lets you add a wide variety of citation styles, among them the one for JEPP (see here). While this will save you a bunch of time, please beware! This will not make your references an automatic success. When adding a source to your library check it carefully for errors. Moreover, always double-check your bibliography before handing your paper in. Whenever there is a mistake, you will not get to blame Zotero 😉
- Please make sure to include all sources you use in the text in the bibliography at the end. Do not include sources you have read but not actually used in the text. Double-check your bibliography right before handing in.
- When you include two or more publications by the same author, distinguish them by alphabetically adding letters to the year of publication (e.g., Jones 2000a, 2000b, 2000c).
- When using sources from more than one author in the same reference, order them alphabetically and separate them using semicolons (e.g., Adams 2002; Burns and Jones 1999a, 1999b; Colbert 2010).
- When you already referred to the author(s) in the sentence itself, only add the year of publication in brackets, as in “Smith (2015) claimed that…”.
- When a reference has three or more authors, only state the first followed by “et al.” (e.g., Smith et al. 2014). Please note that this only applies to the in-text citation. In the bibliography you will need to list all authors.
- Important! Always include page numbers in your in-text citations, even if they are not direct quotations (e.g., Smith 2015: 15). It is a basic principle of academic courtesy to let the reader know where to find the necessary stepping stone for the development of your argument. The only exception for me are journal articles where you are referring to elements mentioned in the abstract.
This is, basically, all you need to know for in-text citations. In what follows, I will spell out their long form when included in the bibliography at the end.
- Dür, A., Mateo, G. and Thomas, D. C. (2010) ‘Negotiation theory and the EU: the state of the art’, Journal of European Public Policy 17(5): 613–618.
- Tallberg, J. (2008) ‘Bargaining power in the European Council’, Journal of Common Market Studies 46(3): 685–708.
- Zimmermann, H. (2016) ‘Balancing sustainability and commerce in international negotiation: the EU and its fisheries partnership agreements’, Journal of European Public Policy, doi: 10.1080/13501763.2016.1146324.
Books and edited volumes
- Moravcsik, A. (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
- Richardson, J. and Mazey, S. (eds) (2015) European Union: Power and Policy-Making, 4th Ed., London: Routledge.
- Wallace, H., Pollack, M.A. and Young, A.R. (eds) (2015) Policy-Making in the European Union, 7th Ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Young, A.R. (2015) ‘The European policy process in comparative perspective’, in H. Wallace, M.A. Pollack, and A.R. Young (eds), Policy-Making in the European Union, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 46–71.
Reports by think tanks
- Kurpas, S., Grøn, C. and Kaczyński, P. M. (2008) ‘The European Commission after enlargement: does more add up to less?’, CEPS Special Report, Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, available at https://www.ceps.eu/publications/european-commission-after-enlargement-does-more-add-less (accessed September 2016).
- Financial Times (2006) UK urges EU to ease trade laws for poor nations, 16 October, available at https://www.ft.com/content/e6f81cb4-5c66-11db-9e7e-0000779e2340 (accessed October 2016).
Please note that I personally prefer to use the name of the newspaper as “author name” rather than the actual name of the reporter. While the newspaper gives me some indication of what kind of information to expect, it is often difficult to associate the names of individual reporters with newspapers. Moreover, I like being able to quickly spot the difference between academic (author last name) and journalistic sources (newspaper title).
- Council of Ministers (2009) ‘Implementation of the Treaty of Lisbon – delegated acts’, Council Document No. 16998/09, available at http://www.ksh.hu/docs/eu2011/doc/council_290_291_en.pdf (accessed June 2013).
- European Commission (2009) ‘Report from the Commission on the working of committees during 2008’, COM(2009) 335 Final, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2009:0335:FIN:EN:PDF (accessed July 2013).
- European Commission (2013) ‘Key facts on the Joint Africa-EU Strategy’, MEMO/13/367, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-367_en.htm (accessed October 2016).
- European Commission (2016) ‘EU and Egypt to step up cooperation on socio-economic development’, IP/16/3395, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-3395_en.htm (accessed July 2015).
- European Community (2006) ‘Regulation (EC) No 1905/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 establishing a financing instrument for development cooperation’, published in OJ L 378, available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:32006R1905 (accessed July 2015).
- European Parliament (2010) ‘Draft report on the proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and of the Council laying down the rules and general principles concerning mechanisms for control by member states of the Commission’s exercise of implementing powers’, PE441.207v02-00, available at http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+COMPARL+PE-441.207+02+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN (accessed July 2013).
The Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) do not need to be included in your references. It is sufficiently clear what this refers to without a separate reference. But if you need to quote earlier versions, please indicate it clearly in the text, e.g. Art. 12 TEU (consolidated version 2002) or Art. 133 TEC (consolidated version 1992). You can find a chronological list of all treaties here. When you use many primary sources in your paper, you can exceptionally add full references for these sources in the footnotes to unclutter the bibliography.
Still questions? Find JEPP’s original guidelines here or leave me a comment below.